In my ley lines (for ghost hunting) research, I include the Westford Knight site because it has a weird (and credible) enough context.
The only sure sign that a house is haunted is if it has confirmed, paranormal activity.
(But, be sure to verify the thoroughness of past investigations. Even the best teams make mistakes, now & then.)
Without a reliable confirmation, a ghost story could be an urban legend or total fiction.
If you have no trustworthy reports about a location, or you’re among the first teams to visit the site, clues can suggest a house that’s worth investigating.
Look for the following. More than three or four of these could indicate an active haunting.
Even one could be enough, if the site’s history or location is extreme.
1. It has a history of drama, violence, and conflicts between powerful (or highly emotional) people.
If the owners were very wealthy or subject to dire, life-threatening poverty, that’s enough to suspect drama.
But, in many haunted houses, even casual research will turn up a sinister history. (The local cemetery may hold clues.)
2. The house has been sold (or rented) often, and the price seems too low.
Use real estate sites like Zillow.com to see how recently the house has sold, for how much (compared to nearby houses), and how frequently it’s been on the market.
Look at past years’ records, too. See if there’s a pattern of unusually low prices, frequent sales, or other anomalies.
If everything looks normal, take note of “too low” prices or “too frequent” sales of nearby homes. The story you heard might be about a nearby home, and the report got the address wrong.
3. Residents’ personalities start to change (stress or due to the ghost’s influence).
If you suspect that a house is haunted, ask the owners or tenants. Especially if they’ve just moved in, they may be delighted to share what they’ve heard about their ghosts. (For them, this may still seem like fun.)
Or, they may react with hostility if too many ghost hunters have contacted them, or if friends & family have voiced concerns about the house.
Several times, I’ve investigated homes where the wife confided that her husband hadn’t been sleeping right since they moved into their new home. Or, the husband reported that his wife “wasn’t herself,” lately.
Of course, just the act of moving into a new home can be stressful. Respect people’s privacy.
Always listen to your “gut feeling.” If it tells you something isn’t right, leave your name & contact info with the current residents.
Tell them to contact you if anything seems amiss in their new home. Be sure they know you don’t charge anything to investigate, and they can trust you to keep their concerns in confidence.
Then, leave them alone. There are plenty of other unexplored haunted houses.
Keep looking. You’ll find one.
4. The house is in a steep valley or gorge.
In folklore, it’s an evil omen when a house already “buried” between tall hills or cliffs. At the very least, it can give a sinister impression.
From my experience, many haunted houses are at extreme ends of the happy-to-ominous spectrum.
Either the location is sunny and cheerful and the house seems at odds with the setting, or you take one look at the area and say, “Wow, what a great, dismal place for a haunted house!”
Oil City, Pennsylvania comes to mind immediately. I’d love to go back there and explore its older homes. Don’t let the cheerful photos fool you. I spent just one sleepless night in Oil City, but that was enough. I’m convinced it’s one of America’s most-overlooked haunted communities.
5. The house is on a peak.
This may seem the opposite of the folklore, above. In this case, it’s about history and burial traditions.
In some cultures, including several Native American societies, the ideal place for a burial is as close to the sky (heaven) as you can find.
Also, powerful communities and land owners chose home (and fort) locations where they could look down on approaching enemies.
This kind of history is prime for power struggles that led to hauntings.
(New York’s Morris-Jumel Mansion is a typical “peak” mansion, overlooking the Harlem River. It’s Manhattan’s oldest house and it has a haunted history.)
6. Electrical equipment fails.
One of the surest signs of a haunting is when electrical devices fail or batteries drain for no apparent reason.
During an investigation, if you find AA batteries in random places, those were probably left behind by previous investigators. It’s a good sign that the site is haunted.
(If you find others’ abandoned batteries, pick them up and dispose of them responsibly. Ghost hunters earn a bad reputation when they leave litter behind.)
7. People see lights or figures in the windows, when no one is there.
Yes, this can be a made-up story. It’s a common urban legend.
But, if the homeowner (or a neighbor) insists that figures are seen in the windows when no one is home, that’s enough reason to investigate.
(This is when the police can be tremendously helpful. They know which houses are reported with unexplained lights, inside, but — when the police get there — they never find evidence. Shepherdstown is among the most famous.)
8. When people live there, they keep the curtains closed all the time.
Closed curtains can indicate a home where people are frightened. But, it might be a sign of someone with an offbeat sleep schedule. Ask about this.
Frightened people hope their uneasiness comes from outside the home. So, they close the blinds, shades, and curtains to shut out the danger.
It may be an unconscious reaction.
They may have an excuse, but it’ll sound hollow. They’ll say things like, “Oh, that’s to keep street noise out,” though the street is obviously a quiet one.
At residential hauntings, when many curtains are always closed, I know someone – or everyone – in the house may be unreasonably frightened.
9. The house still has most of its original/previous residents’ belongings in it.
The Amityville Horror house is a good example of this. At least two families bought the house when it was still furnished by the previous tenants.
After the DeFeo murders, I suppose the furniture was simply left there. There wasn’t anyone to claim it.
But, when the Lutz family left everything behind as well, that was practically a flashing neon sign: Something was deeply wrong at that house.
It’s normal to find a small bookcase or broken chair in a basement. Small piles of dirt or discarded items are routine, as well.
However, when people abandon large items that are expensive to replace, either they’re moving a long distance or fleeing the house.
10. The house holds your attention (or repulses you)
More than any other sign, a place that seems odd (or even creepy) and you can’t explain why, is worth investigating.
(That’s how I stumbled upon Austin’s “Jack the Ripper” connection. Until I researched what they had in common, I couldn’t explain — even to myself — why I felt drawn to certain Austin locations, over & over again.)
I’m not sure that, all by itself, that one factor is enough to say, “That’s haunted.” But, it greatly increases the likelihood of paranormal activity.
11. There’s a graveyard (or a rumor of one) on the property.
This is especially likely at older home sites, when family cemeteries were routinely placed near the house.
You may need to research the site using very old maps and property descriptions. (When a property was sold to a new owner, the land and features on it may have been detailed in the deed.)
You may hear that, in the 19th or 20th century, the graves were moved to a community cemetery.
What people are less likely to tell you: Even today, coffins, bodies, and even body parts are sometimes left behind. Without ground-penetrating radar and detailed records, it was easy to overlook graves.
If the graves were really old and the wooden (or cardboard) coffins rotted in the ground, finding all of them may have been impossible. (I’m reminded of the New Hampshire home where the owner insisted on carrying a shotgun when she went out to the backyard, after dusk.)
Also, unmarked graves are normal at any cemetery, large or small.
A forgotten grave could explain a haunting. Nobody wants to be forgotten.
12. It has hidden rooms, or rumors of them.
If you know that a house had a secret passageway, a hidden room, or something like a “priest hole,” investigate it.
If you’re not sure, measure the rooms and compare them with the dimensions of the house. A digital (laser) measuring device can save the most time.
A jag in a wall could indicate a chimney or where pipes are routed through the house.
Or, if it’s large enough, you may have stumbled onto a hidden room or boarded-up closet. That site probably has a credible ghost story.
Tavern 27 (Laconia, NH) has several great ghost stories. When I investigated it, several years ago, the owners still hadn’t found the legendary hidden passage from the attic to the basement.
13. It was part of the Underground Railroad.
In the United States, starting in the 1700s, the Underground Railroad was a network of “safe houses” for runaway slaves. A similar 17th century escape route led from the American colonies to Spanish territories.
In some cases, the locations included hidden rooms. They’re surprisingly tiny.
Also, some of those rooms — once hidden — were later converted to root cellars or other storage areas. If the cellar seems odd or divided, ask if the homeowners know its history.
When a home was used as an Underground Railroad site, intense fear — both the slaves’ and the homeowners’ — could explain a residual energy haunting.
(If you investigate an old cellar or hidden room, be sure to take precautions in case the air isn’t safe.)
Many other features suggest a house that may be haunted. These are the top 13 that came to mind, when I wrote this article.
If you can suggest other “red flags” that indicate a haunted house, I hope you’ll leave a comment about it.
If you’re planning to investigate ghosts in haunted cemeteries, you’ll need to know which cemeteries are in your community.
Different kinds of cemeteries can provide different research opportunities and results.
Generally, I look for cemeteries with graves from the 19th century. I prefer cemeteries that are open to the public from dawn to dusk, or later.
However, if a haunted site has been over-visited or over-researched, its energy can be diluted.
In my opinion, the lingering residual energy — from startled or enthusiastic ghost hunters — can mask older residual energy from the ghost, or impressions from the ghost himself.
So, private cemeteries can have an energy advantage, as long as I can get permission to investigate them.
Here are some categories of cemeteries:
- Church graveyards, usually next to the church, but they may be moved if the real estate becomes valuable enough to justify the move. (That’s the case next door to Salem’s “Witch House.“)
- Family plots and cemeteries. They’re where early homesteaders (and others) sometimes buried their relatives. Today, those graves may remain — marked or unmarked — near old homes. Others may have been moved to community cemeteries. (And, in some cases, bodies or body parts may have been overlooked.)
- Battlefield cemeteries. Sometimes they’re just pits where the bodies were buried, en masse, with or without a marker.
- Community cemeteries, sometimes built around earlier church graveyards or family plots. Research their history to find out what was there. In some cases, like at South Street Cemetery in Portsmouth (NH, USA), the site may have included a gallows.
I describe other kinds of cemeteries — and some of the pros & cons of researching them — in my book, Ghost Hunting in Haunted Cemeteries.
Here’s an interesting pattern I’ve noticed when I’m investigating haunted cemeteries: Where I find one member of a family with a gravestone that seems to stand out, I look for a relative with a second “odd” gravestone.
Usually — but not always — it’s nearby, but not necessarily in the same plot enclosure.
When two or more related gravestones (or graves) hold my interest, there’s usually a story to be told.
For example, the following photos shows the memorial of Capt. Bird Holland. It’s a classic example of the respect given to fallen soldiers in the War Between the States.
This tribute stands out because the inscription is so ornate.
However — for me, as a paranormal researcher — something more than that seemed odd. At the time, I couldn’t put my finger on it.
His wife, Matilda Rust Holland, preceded him in 1858, after only one year of marriage.
Her apparent grave is unusual, for another reason: Only leaves fill the space beneath the horizontal stone. (I’ve indicated that space with a red rectangle.)
The leaves are inside some ornate ironwork. I assume her body is there, under the ground, but it is an unusual grave design.
Recently, my research into the Holland family uncovered an interesting history. Bird Holland may have fathered as many as three sons — Milton, William, and James — by a second woman named Matilda Holland. She was a slave on Bird’s father’s plantation.
During or shortly before the 1850s, Bird purchased freedom for those three sons (but not their brother, Toby, who may have had a different father) and sent the them to school in Ohio.
In the Civil War, Bird Holland fought on the side of the Confederacy.
His son, Milton, was a Union soldier and led the troops in a battle at Petersburg, Virginia.
Both men were heroes.
You can read more of the story here: Milton Holland, born August 1st, 1844, and in the book Texas Cemeteries by Bill Harvey. (If I’d had that information when I was researching in Austin, Texas, I might have had better EVP results.)
My point is: When you see one unusual gravestone, keep it in mind as you continue your research.
When you find a second, related grave that seems “odd,” historical research may improve your investigation results.
Frankly, I’d love to ask Matilda Rust Holland how she felt about her husband’s sons.
And, I’d be interested in how Bird felt about his son Milton’s heroism — being awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor — for his valor during the war… fighting for the other side.
When ghost hunting in haunted cemeteries, I always look for damaged gravestones. In many cases, we find paranormal energy around those graves and markers.
Sometimes the person named on them is indignant or grief-stricken over what’s happened.
That’s understandable. The grave was his or her final resting place, and it’s been neglected or even vandalized. There’s no excuse for that.
Usually, there’s little we can do besides offer sympathy and consolation. I’m not sure that’s enough to give closure to the spirit, so he (or she) can “cross over.”
However, it’s worth a try.
The following photos show the kinds of damage I’ve seen — and investigated, successfully — in haunted cemeteries.
(Until the photo gallery is restored at this site, this illustration shows the kinds of pictures I’ve featured.)
For more information about cemetery research, read my book, Ghost Hunting in Haunted Cemeteries.